LC-MS/MS multi-method for mycotoxins after single extraction, with validation data for peanut, pistachio, wheat, maize, cornflakes, raisins and figs.Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008 Apr; 25(4):472-89.FA
Mycotoxin analysis is usually carried out by high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column cleanup or in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. These methods normally involve determination of single compounds only. EU legislation already exists for the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and patulin in food, and legislation will come into force for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and the fumonisins in 2007. To enforce the various legal limits, it would be preferable to determine all mycotoxins by routine analysis in different types of matrices in one single extract. This would also be advantageous for HACCP control purposes. For this reason, a multi-method was developed with which 33 mycotoxins in various products could be analysed simultaneously. The mycotoxins were extracted with an acetonitrile/water mixture, diluted with water and then directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system. The mycotoxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and detected using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) and tandem MS, using MRM in the positive ion mode, to increase specificity for quality control. The following mycotoxins could be analysed in a single 30-min run: Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, alpha-zearalenol, alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalanol, sterigmatocystin, cyclopiazonic acid, penicillic acid, fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, diacetoxyscirpenol, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, zearalanone, ergotamin, ergocornin, ergocristin, alpha-ergocryptin, citrinin, roquefortin C, fusarenone X, nivalenol, mycophenolic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The limit of quantification for the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was 1.0 microg kg(-1) and for deoxynivalenol 50 microg kg(-1). The quantification limits for the other mycotoxins were in the range 10-200 microg kg(-1). The matrix effect and validation data are presented for between 13 and 24 mycotoxins in peanuts, pistachios, wheat, maize, cornflakes, raisins and figs. The method has been compared with the official EU method for the determination of aflatoxins in food and relevant FAPAS rounds. The multi-mycotoxin method has been proven by the detection of more than one mycotoxin in maize, buckwheat, figs and nuts. The LC-MS/MS technique has also been applied to baby food, which is subject to lower limits for aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, ergot alkaloids in naturally contaminated rye and freeze-dried silage samples.