Causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation.BJU Int. 2008 Apr; 101(8):1029-34.BI
To explore the role of bladder capacity, bladder pain, dysfunctional voiding, urgency, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and urinary output as potential causes of frequency and nocturia after renal transplantation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Data were gathered from 52 adult renal transplant patients (35 men and 17 women, mean age 49 years), using a written questionnaire, medical records, frequency/volume charts, and urinary cultures. The mean time between transplantation and data collection was 5 months. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used for the simultaneous assessment of direct and indirect relationships between explanatory variables and voiding frequency.
Frequency and nocturia were found in 54% and 60% of the study population, respectively. Frequency was directly associated with a small bladder capacity, bladder pain, urgency, and a high daytime urine volume, and indirectly by UTIs (via urgency and bladder pain). Nocturia was associated with high nocturnal urine volume, small bladder capacity and dysfunctional voiding. A quarter of the patients had small bladders and another quarter had large bladders, the latter being associated with nocturnal polyuria.
The presence of frequency, especially when accompanied by bladder pain, might aid the physician to identify patients with small bladders. The presence of nocturia can be the result of a high nocturnal urine volume, which increases the risk of bladder enlargement. Because both abnormal bladder conditions can contribute to graft dysfunction, we recommend a urological follow-up after renal transplantation, using frequency/volume charts.