Birth weight, abdominal obesity and the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms in a population based study of Swedish men.J Urol 2008; 179(5):1891-5; discussion 1895-6JU
Lower urinary tract symptoms and obesity are prominent health problems. Low birth weight increases the adult risk of adiposity and insulin resistance, which may increase sympathetic activity and potentially lower urinary tract symptoms. Results of obesity and lower urinary tract symptoms studies are conflicting, and low birth weight and lower urinary tract symptoms relationships have not been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This cross-sectional study examines lower urinary tract symptoms, body measures, activity, birth weight and lifestyle data collected by questionnaire from 1997 to 1998. Overall 27,858 men were analyzed and odds ratios calculated after excluding those with cancer, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes and incomplete information.
After adjustment for age, activity level, smoking, alcohol, coffee intake and body mass index, a significant positive association was seen between abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio) and moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The risks of moderate to severe and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were 22% (95% CI 1.09-1.37) and 28% (95% CI 1.01-1.63) higher, respectively, for the top vs the lowest abdominal obesity quartile. The risk of nocturia (twice or more per night) was 1.16 (95% CI 1.02-1.33) in men in the top compared to the bottom waist-to-hip ratio quartile. Men with low birth weight (less than 2,500 gm) had a 61% (95% CI 1.12-2.30) higher risk of severe lower urinary tract symptoms compared to men with normal birth weight (2,500 to 3,999 gm). Men in the top waist-to-hip ratio quartile who had low birth weight had twice the risk of severe lower urinary tract symptoms (95% CI 1.29-3.02) compared to men with normal birth weight and in the lowest waist-to-hip ratio quartile.
Low birth weight and abdominal adiposity are associated with increased risk of moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms in adults. Further investigations are needed to determine if decreases in obesity can ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms.