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Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.
J Nutr. 2008 Apr; 138(4):732-9.JN

Abstract

Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P < 0.05). At breakfast, the glucose response was inversely correlated with colonic fermentation (r = -0.25; P < 0.05) and GLP-1 (r = -0.26; P < 0.05) and positively correlated with FFA (r = 0.37; P < 0.001). IL-6 was lower (P < 0.01) and adiponectin was higher (P < 0.05) at breakfast following an evening meal with barley-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P < 0.01) and inversely with GER (r = -0.23; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the composition of indigestible carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden. anne.nilsson@appliednutrition.lth.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18356328

Citation

Nilsson, Anne C., et al. "Including Indigestible Carbohydrates in the Evening Meal of Healthy Subjects Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lowers Inflammatory Markers, and Increases Satiety After a Subsequent Standardized Breakfast." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 138, no. 4, 2008, pp. 732-9.
Nilsson AC, Ostman EM, Holst JJ, et al. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. J Nutr. 2008;138(4):732-9.
Nilsson, A. C., Ostman, E. M., Holst, J. J., & Björck, I. M. (2008). Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. The Journal of Nutrition, 138(4), 732-9.
Nilsson AC, et al. Including Indigestible Carbohydrates in the Evening Meal of Healthy Subjects Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lowers Inflammatory Markers, and Increases Satiety After a Subsequent Standardized Breakfast. J Nutr. 2008;138(4):732-9. PubMed PMID: 18356328.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. AU - Nilsson,Anne C, AU - Ostman,Elin M, AU - Holst,Jens J, AU - Björck,Inger M E, PY - 2008/3/22/pubmed PY - 2008/4/11/medline PY - 2008/3/22/entrez SP - 732 EP - 9 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 138 IS - 4 N2 - Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P < 0.05). At breakfast, the glucose response was inversely correlated with colonic fermentation (r = -0.25; P < 0.05) and GLP-1 (r = -0.26; P < 0.05) and positively correlated with FFA (r = 0.37; P < 0.001). IL-6 was lower (P < 0.01) and adiponectin was higher (P < 0.05) at breakfast following an evening meal with barley-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P < 0.01) and inversely with GER (r = -0.23; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the composition of indigestible carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18356328/Including_indigestible_carbohydrates_in_the_evening_meal_of_healthy_subjects_improves_glucose_tolerance_lowers_inflammatory_markers_and_increases_satiety_after_a_subsequent_standardized_breakfast_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/138.4.732 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -