[Polycystic ovary syndrome and pregnancy: clinical experience].Rev Med Chil 2007; 135(12):1530-8RM
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine metabolic dysfunction closely associated with insulin resistance and obesity, which predisposes to pregnancy complications.
To report a prospective clinical experience in PCOS patients who became pregnant after diet, exercise and metformin treatment intervention, and were followed up during the whole pregnancy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Seventy pregnant PCOS (PPCOS) women and forty normal pregnant (NP) women of similar age and with singleton pregnancies were included in the study. During gestational ages 10-16 and 22-28 weeks, a 2h, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed with measurement of glucose and insulin in each sample.
No differences were found in duration of gestation, weight gain during pregnancy, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure between PPCOS and NP women. There were significant differences in body mass index (BMI) at the initiation and in the third trimester of pregnancy between both groups. The incidence of gestational diabetes was significantly higher (p <0.01) in the PCOS group (35.2%) compared to the control group (5.0%). The prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants tended to be higher (p =0.09) in the PCOS group. During pregnancy, 2h glucose and insulin were significantly higher in PPCOS than in NP women.
PCOS mothers showed a higher prevalence of gestational diabetes and SGA newborns, which cannot be attributed to the weight gain during pregnancy, and seems to be more related to the BMI at the initiation of pregnancy, and to the PCOS condition of the mother.