Genotoxicity assessment of acute exposure of chlorpyrifos to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis.Chemosphere. 2008 May; 71(10):1823-31.C
Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridylphosphorothioate) is one of the organophosphate pesticides widely used in agricultural practices throughout world and irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterase in all animal species. Limited efforts have been made to study acute genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in different tissues of fish using genotoxic biomarkers. Therefore, the present investigation was aimed to study the induction of DNA damage by CPF in freshwater teleost fish Channapunctatus using micronucleus assay (MN assay) and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The value of LC(50) - 96 h of CPF was determined as 811.98 microgl(-1) for C. punctatus, in a semi-static system and on the basis of LC(50) value three acute concentrations viz., 203, 406 and 609 microgl(-1) were determined. The fishes were exposed to the different concentrations of CPF for 96 h and samplings were done at regular intervals for assessment of the MN frequencies and DNA damage. In general, significant effects (P<0.01) from both concentrations and time of exposure were observed in exposed fishes. It was found that the micronucleus induction was highest on 96 h at all concentrations in the peripheral blood. Similar trend was observed for the DNA damage measured in terms of the percentage of tail DNA in the lymphocyte and gill cells. This study explored the combined use of micronucleus assay and comet assay for in vivo laboratory studies using fresh water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of xenobiotics.