Comparison of caudal epidural bupivacaine with bupivacaine plus tramadol and bupivacaine plus ketamine for postoperative analgesia in children.Anaesth Intensive Care. 2008 Mar; 36(2):174-9.AI
This study compared the effect of single-dose caudal epidural bupivacaine, bupivacaine plus ketamine and bupivacaine plus tramadol for postoperative pain management in children having surgery for inguinal hernia. Following ethics committee approval and informed parental consent, 75 children ASA PS I and II, between three and nine years of age and scheduled for elective unilateral inguinal hernia repair with general anaesthesia were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into three groups to receive 0.5 ml/kg caudal bupivacaine 0.25% (group B), bupivacaine 0.25% plus tramadol 1 mg/kg (group BT) or bupivacaine 0.25% plus ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (group BK). The injections were performed under general anaesthesia. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, pulse oximetry, respiratory rate and sedation and pain scores were recorded at defined intervals following recovery from anaesthesia. The groups were similar in age, weight and duration of operation (P >0.05). No patient experienced hypotension, bradycardia or respiratory depression. Duration of analgesia was (mean+/-SD) 6.5+/-4.1 h in group B, 9.2+/-3.9 h in group BK, and 8.5+/-3.1 h in group BT (P <0.05). More patients in group B required supplementary analgesics in the first 24 h (P <0.05). Sedation scores were comparable in all groups. Incidence of emesis and pruritus was similar in all the groups. Caudally administered 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus ketamine or bupivacaine 0.25% plus tramadol 1 mg/kg provided significantly longer duration of analgesia without an increase in the adverse effects when compared to bupivacaine alone.