Selective synergy in anti-inflammatory cytokine production upon cooperated signaling via TLR4 and TLR2 in murine conventional dendritic cells.Mol Immunol 2008; 45(10):2734-42MI
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce dendritic cell (DC) production of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-10. The balance of inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory cytokines appears to be crucial to control immune homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated TLR-mediated regulation of inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory cytokine production using murine bone marrow derived conventional DCs. Standard LPS (sLPS) that contains lipoprotein, a TLR2 ligand, induced vigorous production of both IL-10 and IL-12 p40 by DCs. Highly purified LPS (ultra-pure LPS, upLPS) also induced vigorous production of IL-12 p40, but markedly low IL-10 production. Thus, signal deficiency through TLR2 appeared to result in marked reduction in DC production of IL-10 but not IL-12 p40 upon stimulation with upLPS. To examine this possibility, DCs were stimulated with Pam3CSK4, a synthetic ligand of TLR2, in addition to stimulation with upLPS. It was shown that Pam3CSK4 alone failed to induce IL-10 production. However, Pam3CSK4 synergistically enhanced upLPS-induced DC production of IL-10 but neither IL-12 p40 nor TNF-alpha. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 in DCs were significantly activated by upLPS stimulation. The upLPS-induced activities of these MAPKs were considerably enhanced by additional stimulation with Pam3CSK4. Blocking either p38 MAPK or JNK1/2 pathway completely inhibited the synergistic enhancement of the IL-10 production by DCs upon upLPS and Pam3CSK4 stimulation. Thus, cooperated stimulation of these MAPKs via TLR4 and TLR2 appeared to induce selective synergy in anti-inflammatory cytokine production by murine conventional DCs.