Filarial infections in travelers and immigrants.Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2008 Mar; 10(1):50-7.CI
Filarial infections including loiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis are important causes of morbidity in endemic populations worldwide, and they present a risk to travelers to endemic areas. Definitive diagnosis is complicated by overlap in the geographic distribution and clinical manifestations of the different filarial parasites, as well as similarities in their antigenic and nucleic acid composition. This has important implications for treatment, because the efficacies and toxicities of available antifilarial agents differ dramatically among filarial species. Recent advances, including the visualization of adult filarial worms in vivo by high-frequency ultrasound and the identification of the bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia, have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of filarial infection and have led to novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of travelers and immigrants from filarial-endemic regions.