Comparison of five-year outcome in African Americans versus Caucasians following percutaneous coronary intervention.Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2008 Jul 01; 72(1):36-44.CC
Studies regarding short-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported no ethnic differences and data on long-term follow-up is conflicting and sparse.
730 consecutive patients (67% African American) undergoing PCI from January 1999 to December 2000 at a tertiary care center in Detroit, MI, were followed up. End points studied included either all cause mortality collected from Social Security Death Index or first hospital admission after the index procedure due to myocardial infarction(MI), congestive heart failure(CHF), and revascularization (PCI or coronary artery bypass graft surgery).
African-Americans undergoing PCI had significant differences in baseline cardiovascular co-morbidity and were more likely to present with acute myocardial infarction than Caucasians. On Kaplan Meier survival analysis and log rank test, each ethnic group had equivalent survival for cumulative end points upto 6-month follow-up, however longer follow-up to 5 year was characterized by lower survival rate in African Americans compared to Caucasians (41% vs. 54%, log rank P 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, AA ethnicity (Adjusted HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01-1.28, P 0.04) remained a predictor of adverse cardiac outcome (Death/MI/CHF) at five-year follow-up (Cox regression propensity adjusted hazard analysis).
African American patients undergoing PCI had unfavorable baseline cardiovascular characteristics but comparable short-term outcome compared to whites. However, at 5-year follow-up, African Americans had worse clinical outcome, higher incidence of acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and significantly lower long-term survival.