Portal hypertension and variceal hemorrhage.Med Clin North Am. 2008 May; 92(3):551-74, viii.MC
Portal hypertension, a major hallmark of cirrhosis, is defined as a portal pressure gradient exceeding 5 mm Hg. In portal hypertension, porto-systemic collaterals decompress the portal circulation and give rise to varices. Successful management of portal hypertension and its complications requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology, the pertinent anatomy, and the natural history of the collateral circulation, particularly the gastroesophageal varices.