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Iron deficiency anemia.

Abstract

The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. Although the etiology of IDA is multifaceted, it generally results when the iron demands by the body are not met by iron absorption, regardless of the reason. Individuals with IDA have inadequate intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or chronic blood loss secondary to disease. In adults, IDA can result in a wide variety of adverse outcomes including diminished work or exercise capacity, impaired thermoregulation, immune dysfunction, GI disturbances, and neurocognitive impairment. In addition, IDA concomitant with chronic kidney disease or congestive heart failure can worsen the outcome of both conditions. In this review, the prevalence of IDA related to confounding medical conditions will be described along with its diverse etiologies. Distinguishing IDA from anemia of chronic disease using hematologic measures is reviewed as well. In addition, current diagnostic strategies that are inclusive of clinical presentation, biochemical tests, and differential diagnosis will be outlined, followed by a discussion of treatment modalities and future research recommendations.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. sfclark@vt.edu

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Age Factors
    Aged
    Anemia, Iron-Deficiency
    Biological Availability
    Child
    Comorbidity
    Diagnosis, Differential
    Female
    Gastrointestinal Diseases
    Humans
    Intestinal Absorption
    Iron, Dietary
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutritional Requirements
    Prevalence
    Severity of Illness Index
    Sex Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18390780

    Citation

    Clark, Susan F.. "Iron Deficiency Anemia." Nutrition in Clinical Practice : Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 2, 2008, pp. 128-41.
    Clark SF. Iron deficiency anemia. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23(2):128-41.
    Clark, S. F. (2008). Iron deficiency anemia. Nutrition in Clinical Practice : Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 23(2), pp. 128-41. doi:10.1177/0884533608314536.
    Clark SF. Iron Deficiency Anemia. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23(2):128-41. PubMed PMID: 18390780.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Iron deficiency anemia. A1 - Clark,Susan F, PY - 2008/4/9/pubmed PY - 2008/8/12/medline PY - 2008/4/9/entrez SP - 128 EP - 41 JF - Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition JO - Nutr Clin Pract VL - 23 IS - 2 N2 - The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. Although the etiology of IDA is multifaceted, it generally results when the iron demands by the body are not met by iron absorption, regardless of the reason. Individuals with IDA have inadequate intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or chronic blood loss secondary to disease. In adults, IDA can result in a wide variety of adverse outcomes including diminished work or exercise capacity, impaired thermoregulation, immune dysfunction, GI disturbances, and neurocognitive impairment. In addition, IDA concomitant with chronic kidney disease or congestive heart failure can worsen the outcome of both conditions. In this review, the prevalence of IDA related to confounding medical conditions will be described along with its diverse etiologies. Distinguishing IDA from anemia of chronic disease using hematologic measures is reviewed as well. In addition, current diagnostic strategies that are inclusive of clinical presentation, biochemical tests, and differential diagnosis will be outlined, followed by a discussion of treatment modalities and future research recommendations. SN - 0884-5336 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18390780/full_citation L2 - https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533608314536 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -