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Iron deficiency anemia.
Nutr Clin Pract 2008 Apr-May; 23(2):128-41NC

Abstract

The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. Although the etiology of IDA is multifaceted, it generally results when the iron demands by the body are not met by iron absorption, regardless of the reason. Individuals with IDA have inadequate intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or chronic blood loss secondary to disease. In adults, IDA can result in a wide variety of adverse outcomes including diminished work or exercise capacity, impaired thermoregulation, immune dysfunction, GI disturbances, and neurocognitive impairment. In addition, IDA concomitant with chronic kidney disease or congestive heart failure can worsen the outcome of both conditions. In this review, the prevalence of IDA related to confounding medical conditions will be described along with its diverse etiologies. Distinguishing IDA from anemia of chronic disease using hematologic measures is reviewed as well. In addition, current diagnostic strategies that are inclusive of clinical presentation, biochemical tests, and differential diagnosis will be outlined, followed by a discussion of treatment modalities and future research recommendations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. sfclark@vt.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18390780

Citation

Clark, Susan F.. "Iron Deficiency Anemia." Nutrition in Clinical Practice : Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 2, 2008, pp. 128-41.
Clark SF. Iron deficiency anemia. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23(2):128-41.
Clark, S. F. (2008). Iron deficiency anemia. Nutrition in Clinical Practice : Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 23(2), pp. 128-41. doi:10.1177/0884533608314536.
Clark SF. Iron Deficiency Anemia. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23(2):128-41. PubMed PMID: 18390780.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron deficiency anemia. A1 - Clark,Susan F, PY - 2008/4/9/pubmed PY - 2008/8/12/medline PY - 2008/4/9/entrez SP - 128 EP - 41 JF - Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition JO - Nutr Clin Pract VL - 23 IS - 2 N2 - The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. Although the etiology of IDA is multifaceted, it generally results when the iron demands by the body are not met by iron absorption, regardless of the reason. Individuals with IDA have inadequate intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or chronic blood loss secondary to disease. In adults, IDA can result in a wide variety of adverse outcomes including diminished work or exercise capacity, impaired thermoregulation, immune dysfunction, GI disturbances, and neurocognitive impairment. In addition, IDA concomitant with chronic kidney disease or congestive heart failure can worsen the outcome of both conditions. In this review, the prevalence of IDA related to confounding medical conditions will be described along with its diverse etiologies. Distinguishing IDA from anemia of chronic disease using hematologic measures is reviewed as well. In addition, current diagnostic strategies that are inclusive of clinical presentation, biochemical tests, and differential diagnosis will be outlined, followed by a discussion of treatment modalities and future research recommendations. SN - 0884-5336 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18390780/full_citation L2 - https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533608314536 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -