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Secular trends in the prevalence of iron deficiency among US toddlers, 1976-2002.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008; 162(4):374-81AP

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine secular trends in iron deficiency among US children 1 to 3 years old.

DESIGN

Secular trend analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-IV.

SETTING

Large-scale national survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics from 1976 to 2002.

PARTICIPANTS

US children 1 to 3 years old. Outcome Measure Prevalence of iron deficiency.

RESULTS

Between 1976 and 2002, there was no change in iron deficiency prevalence in US toddlers. Iron deficiency prevalence remained unchanged in Hispanic and white toddlers but decreased among black toddlers. Across all 3 survey waves, racial/ethnic disparities in iron deficiency persisted between Hispanic and white toddlers, with a disparity ratio of at least 2. Iron deficiency prevalence remained high (20%-24%) in overweight toddlers, significantly higher than in those at risk for overweight (11%) and in normal weight or underweight toddlers (8%). Iron deficiency prevalence decreased from 22% to 9% in toddlers in poor households but remained unchanged in toddlers in nonpoor households (7%). In multivariable analyses, Hispanic, younger, and overweight toddlers had higher odds of iron deficiency.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the decline in iron deficiency prevalence among 1-year-old, black, and poor children, iron deficiency prevalence in US toddlers overall has not changed in the last 26 years and remains elevated in certain high-risk groups: Hispanic, younger, and overweight toddlers. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency in infancy and early childhood are urgently needed and should target high-risk groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-9063, USA. jane.brotanek@utsouthwestern.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18391147

Citation

Brotanek, Jane M., et al. "Secular Trends in the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Among US Toddlers, 1976-2002." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, no. 4, 2008, pp. 374-81.
Brotanek JM, Gosz J, Weitzman M, et al. Secular trends in the prevalence of iron deficiency among US toddlers, 1976-2002. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(4):374-81.
Brotanek, J. M., Gosz, J., Weitzman, M., & Flores, G. (2008). Secular trends in the prevalence of iron deficiency among US toddlers, 1976-2002. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(4), pp. 374-81. doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.4.374.
Brotanek JM, et al. Secular Trends in the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Among US Toddlers, 1976-2002. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(4):374-81. PubMed PMID: 18391147.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Secular trends in the prevalence of iron deficiency among US toddlers, 1976-2002. AU - Brotanek,Jane M, AU - Gosz,Jacqueline, AU - Weitzman,Michael, AU - Flores,Glenn, PY - 2008/4/9/pubmed PY - 2008/4/18/medline PY - 2008/4/9/entrez SP - 374 EP - 81 JF - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine JO - Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med VL - 162 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine secular trends in iron deficiency among US children 1 to 3 years old. DESIGN: Secular trend analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-IV. SETTING: Large-scale national survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics from 1976 to 2002. PARTICIPANTS: US children 1 to 3 years old. Outcome Measure Prevalence of iron deficiency. RESULTS: Between 1976 and 2002, there was no change in iron deficiency prevalence in US toddlers. Iron deficiency prevalence remained unchanged in Hispanic and white toddlers but decreased among black toddlers. Across all 3 survey waves, racial/ethnic disparities in iron deficiency persisted between Hispanic and white toddlers, with a disparity ratio of at least 2. Iron deficiency prevalence remained high (20%-24%) in overweight toddlers, significantly higher than in those at risk for overweight (11%) and in normal weight or underweight toddlers (8%). Iron deficiency prevalence decreased from 22% to 9% in toddlers in poor households but remained unchanged in toddlers in nonpoor households (7%). In multivariable analyses, Hispanic, younger, and overweight toddlers had higher odds of iron deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decline in iron deficiency prevalence among 1-year-old, black, and poor children, iron deficiency prevalence in US toddlers overall has not changed in the last 26 years and remains elevated in certain high-risk groups: Hispanic, younger, and overweight toddlers. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency in infancy and early childhood are urgently needed and should target high-risk groups. SN - 1538-3628 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18391147/Secular_trends_in_the_prevalence_of_iron_deficiency_among_US_toddlers_1976_2002_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/10.1001/archpedi.162.4.374 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -