Impact of previous infestation on dynamics of circulating hypodermin C in cattle artificially infested with Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae).Vet Parasitol. 2008 Jun 14; 154(1-2):114-21.VP
Four groups of cattle were artificially infested with 50 first instar Hypoderma lineatum after either a primary natural infestation or in the absence of a primary infestation. In two groups the primary infestation had been terminated by the application of either an organophosphate insecticide or a macrocyclic lactone parasiticide. Circulating hypodermin C and specific antibodies were measured for 40 weeks after the artificial infestation. Stage specific mortality of the larvae was also monitored. Previously uninfested cattle exhibited typical antibody and antigen profiles during the infestations. Antibodies were first detected on Week 7p.i., they rose to maximum values between Weeks 24 and 25, then declined as larvae reached the back. A second peak occurred at Week 32 and antibody remained more less constant thereafter. Previously infested groups exhibited a dramatic anamnestic response by Week 3p.i. with antibody levels peaking at Week 8. A second peak was noted between Weeks 24 and 26p.i. after which antibody levels declined and then remained relatively stable. The dynamics of circulating hypodermin C in the previously infested cattle resembled those in the previously uninfested cattle. Mortality of first instars did not differ among the four groups. Similarly mortality of second and third instars, in the warble, did not differ although there was a tendency for higher mortality in the previously infested, untreated group. These results reinforce previous work demonstrating the development of a significant immune response during the primary infestation that is reflected in the rapid and substantial production of antibodies upon re-infestation. It is significant that a challenge model using subcutaneous injection of newly hatched first instars avoids host immune responses in the skin that result in substantial larval mortality. The current data also support the concept that migrating first instars induce significant reduction in host immune response. There is a peak of antibody production as antigen levels peak during first instar migration to the back. As larvae molt to the second instar and antigen production ceases there is a persistence of antibody which suggests release of the immune response from the suppression induced by the first instar secretory antigens.