Effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium on gastric fundus in cadmium toxicity in male rats.Int J Toxicol. 2008 Mar-Apr; 27(2):217-22.IJ
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal. It has an indirect role in the generation of various free radicals. Antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium are important for preventing the damage caused by reactive oxygen species. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of acute cadmium and/or antioxidants on serum lipid metabolism, tissue glutathione, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and ghrelin and metallothionein production in the gastric fundus mucosa of rats. Cd (2 mg/kg/day CdCl(2)) was administered to rats for 8 days, intraperitoneally. Vitamin E (250 mg /kg/day) + vitamin C (250 mg/kg/day) + sodium selenate (0.25 mg /kg/day) were administered to rats orally at the same time. The animals were treated by antioxidants 1 h prior to treatment with Cd every day. Gastric tissue homogenates were used for protein and glutathione and LPO levels. Phospholipid and total lipid levels were determined in serum. Gastric fundus sections examined for histopathological changes and by immunohistochemistry for expression of ghrelin and metallothionein. In the group treated with Cd, degenerative changes such as discontinuity in the surface epithelium were observed. The degenerative changes induced by Cd were decreased in the group given vitamin E + vitamin C + selenium. There was no significant change in ghrelin- and metallothionein-immunoreactive cells in fundus mucosa. Stomach glutathione levels insignificantly decreased in the Cd groups, but in the Cd group given antioxidant, stomach glutathione levels were significantly increased. Serum phospholipid and total lipid levels were significantly increased in the Cd groups. On the other hand, treatment with antioxidants reversed these effects. These results indicate that antioxidants partly prevent the toxicity of Cd in rat gastric fundus.