Mechanisms of anger and treatment outcome in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.J Trauma Stress. 2008 Apr; 21(2):142-9.JT
Research has identified anger as prominent in, and an influence on, treatment outcome for military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined factors influencing the relationship between anger and outcome to improve treatment effectiveness. Participants comprised 103 veterans attending PTSD treatment. Measures of PTSD and comorbidity were obtained at intake and 9-month follow-up. Measures also included potential mediators of therapeutic alliance, social support, problematic/undermining relationships and fear of emotion. Path analyses supported anger as a predictor of treatment outcome, with only fear of anger and alcohol comorbidity accounting for the variance between anger and outcome. To improve treatment effectiveness, clinicians need to assess veterans' anger, aggression, and alcohol use, as well as their current fear of anger and elucidate the relationship between these factors.