Bioactivation of flutamide metabolites by human liver microsomes.Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Jul; 36(7):1425-37.DM
Flutamide, a widely used nonsteroidal antiandrogen drug for the treatment of prostate cancer, has been associated with rare incidences of hepatotoxicity in patients. It is believed that bioactivation of flutamide and subsequent covalent binding to cellular proteins is responsible for its toxicity. A novel N-S glutathione adduct has been identified in a previous bioactivation study of flutamide (Kang et al., 2007). Due to the extensive first pass metabolism, flutamide metabolites such as 2-hydroxyflutamide and 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamine (Flu-1) have achieved plasma concentrations higher than the parent in prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies in human liver microsomes were conducted to probe the cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated bioactivation of flutamide metabolites and identify the possible reactive species using reduced glutathione (GSH) as a trapping agent. Several GSH adducts (G1, Flu-1-G1, Flu-1-G2, Flu-6-Gs) derived from the metabolites of flutamide were identified and characterized. A comprehensive bioactivation mechanism was proposed to account for the formation of the observed GSH adducts. Of interest were the formation of a reactive intermediate by the desaturation of the isopropyl group of M5 and the unusual bioactivation of Flu-1. Studies using recombinant P450s suggested that the major P450 isozymes involved in the bioactivation of flutamide and its metabolites were CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19. These findings suggested that, in addition to the direct bioactivation of flutamide, the metabolites of flutamide could also be bioactivated and contribute to flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity.