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Importance of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for osteoporosis prevention and treatment.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May; 67(2):163-76.PN

Abstract

Throughout the life cycle the skeleton requires optimum development and maintenance of its integrity to prevent fracture. Bones break because the loads placed on them exceed the ability of the bone to absorb the energy involved. It is now estimated that one in three women and one in twelve men aged >55 years will suffer from osteoporosis in their lifetime and at a cost in the UK of > 1.7 pounds x 10(9) per year. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is multifactorial. Both the development of peak bone mass and the rate of bone loss are determined by key endogenous and exogenous factors. Ca supplements appear to be effective in reducing bone loss in women late post menopause (>5 years post menopause), particularly in those with low habitual Ca intake (<400 mg/d). In women early post menopause (<5 years post menopause) who are not vitamin D deficient, Ca supplementation has little effect on bone mineral density. However, supplementation with vitamin D and Ca has been shown to reduce fracture rates in the institutionalised elderly, but there remains controversy as to whether supplementation is effective in reducing fracture in free-living populations. Re-defining vitamin D requirements in the UK is needed since there is evidence of extensive hypovitaminosis D in the UK. Low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of falling and a variety of other health outcomes and is an area that requires urgent attention. The role of other micronutrients on bone remains to be fully defined, although there are promising data in the literature for a clear link between vitamin K nutrition and skeletal integrity, including fracture reduction.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK. s.lanham-new@surrey.ac.uk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18412990

Citation

Lanham-New, Susan A.. "Importance of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K for Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment." The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 67, no. 2, 2008, pp. 163-76.
Lanham-New SA. Importance of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008;67(2):163-76.
Lanham-New, S. A. (2008). Importance of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 67(2), 163-76. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665108007003
Lanham-New SA. Importance of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K for Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008;67(2):163-76. PubMed PMID: 18412990.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Importance of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. A1 - Lanham-New,Susan A, PY - 2008/4/17/pubmed PY - 2008/9/13/medline PY - 2008/4/17/entrez SP - 163 EP - 76 JF - The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society JO - Proc Nutr Soc VL - 67 IS - 2 N2 - Throughout the life cycle the skeleton requires optimum development and maintenance of its integrity to prevent fracture. Bones break because the loads placed on them exceed the ability of the bone to absorb the energy involved. It is now estimated that one in three women and one in twelve men aged >55 years will suffer from osteoporosis in their lifetime and at a cost in the UK of > 1.7 pounds x 10(9) per year. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is multifactorial. Both the development of peak bone mass and the rate of bone loss are determined by key endogenous and exogenous factors. Ca supplements appear to be effective in reducing bone loss in women late post menopause (>5 years post menopause), particularly in those with low habitual Ca intake (<400 mg/d). In women early post menopause (<5 years post menopause) who are not vitamin D deficient, Ca supplementation has little effect on bone mineral density. However, supplementation with vitamin D and Ca has been shown to reduce fracture rates in the institutionalised elderly, but there remains controversy as to whether supplementation is effective in reducing fracture in free-living populations. Re-defining vitamin D requirements in the UK is needed since there is evidence of extensive hypovitaminosis D in the UK. Low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of falling and a variety of other health outcomes and is an area that requires urgent attention. The role of other micronutrients on bone remains to be fully defined, although there are promising data in the literature for a clear link between vitamin K nutrition and skeletal integrity, including fracture reduction. SN - 0029-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18412990/Importance_of_calcium_vitamin_D_and_vitamin_K_for_osteoporosis_prevention_and_treatment_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0029665108007003/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -