Evaluation of body fat estimated from body mass index and impedance in Belgian male military candidates: comparing two methods for estimating body composition.Mil Med 2008; 173(3):266-70MM
The study objective was to evaluate whether a classification based on body mass index (BMI) agrees with a classification based on body fat mass, estimated by bioelectrical impedance.
A random sample of 448 male candidates between 18 and 20 years was selected during their medical visit in a military recruitment center. BMI was determined as weight/height2 and was considered normal between 20.0 and 25.0 kg/m2 (cfr. WHO classification). Percentage of body fat was estimated with bioelectrical impedance, using the Omron Body Fat Analyzer HBF-306. Subjects with a body fat percentage measured by bipolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BF%(IMP)) < or = 20.9% were considered normal weight, while subjects with a BF%(IMP) > or = 21.0% were considered overweight. We used the following classification: true positives were normal scores for BMI and impedance; false positives were normal scores for BMI but not for impedance; true negatives were overweight scores for BMI and for impedance; and false negatives were overweight scores for BMI but not for impedance. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical program.
BMI ranged from 17.0 to 29.4 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass varied between 5.3 and 31.4% of body weight. Of the total sample, 328 (73.2%) candidates were classified as true positive, 29 (6.5%) as false negative, 47 (10.5%) as false positive, and finally 44 (9.8%) as true negative. The difference in classification in normal weight versus overweight between the BMI method and the bipolar bioelectrical impedance method was statistically significant (chi2 with one df = 86.04; p < 0.001).
To limit false-negative classifications, additional impedance measurements in the BMI category between 25.0 and 27.0 kg/m2 is mandatory to determine whether there is really an excess fat mass.