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The endocannabinoid system: emotion, learning and addiction.

Abstract

The identification of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) was the milestone discovery in the elucidation of the behavioural and emotional responses induced by the Cannabis sativa constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. The subsequent years have established the existence of the endocannabinoid system. The early view relating this system to emotional responses is reflected by the fact that N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, the pioneer endocannabinoid, was named anandamide after the Sanskrit word 'ananda', meaning 'bliss'. However, the emotional responses to cannabinoids are not always pleasant and delightful. Rather, anxiety and panic may also occur after activation of CB1 receptors. The present review discusses three properties of the endocannabinoid system as an attempt to understand these diverse effects. First, this system typically functions 'on-demand', depending on environmental stimuli and on the emotional state of the organism. Second, it has a wide neuro-anatomical distribution, modulating brain regions with different functions in responses to aversive stimuli. Third, endocannabinoids regulate the release of other neurotransmitters that may have even opposing functions, such as GABA and glutamate. Further understanding of the temporal, spatial and functional characteristics of this system is necessary to clarify its role in emotional responses and will promote advances in its therapeutic exploitation.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, 55099 Mainz, Germany. moreira@uni-mainz.de

    Source

    Addiction biology 13:2 2008 Jun pg 196-212

    MeSH

    Animals
    Anxiety
    Arousal
    Brain
    Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators
    Cannabinoids
    Depression
    Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
    Dronabinol
    Emotions
    Endocannabinoids
    Fear
    Humans
    Learning
    Marijuana Abuse
    Mice
    Neurotransmitter Agents
    Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1
    Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
    Substance-Related Disorders

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18422832

    Citation

    Moreira, Fabrício A., and Beat Lutz. "The Endocannabinoid System: Emotion, Learning and Addiction." Addiction Biology, vol. 13, no. 2, 2008, pp. 196-212.
    Moreira FA, Lutz B. The endocannabinoid system: emotion, learning and addiction. Addict Biol. 2008;13(2):196-212.
    Moreira, F. A., & Lutz, B. (2008). The endocannabinoid system: emotion, learning and addiction. Addiction Biology, 13(2), pp. 196-212. doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00104.x.
    Moreira FA, Lutz B. The Endocannabinoid System: Emotion, Learning and Addiction. Addict Biol. 2008;13(2):196-212. PubMed PMID: 18422832.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The endocannabinoid system: emotion, learning and addiction. AU - Moreira,Fabrício A, AU - Lutz,Beat, Y1 - 2008/04/16/ PY - 2008/4/22/pubmed PY - 2008/7/9/medline PY - 2008/4/22/entrez SP - 196 EP - 212 JF - Addiction biology JO - Addict Biol VL - 13 IS - 2 N2 - The identification of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) was the milestone discovery in the elucidation of the behavioural and emotional responses induced by the Cannabis sativa constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. The subsequent years have established the existence of the endocannabinoid system. The early view relating this system to emotional responses is reflected by the fact that N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, the pioneer endocannabinoid, was named anandamide after the Sanskrit word 'ananda', meaning 'bliss'. However, the emotional responses to cannabinoids are not always pleasant and delightful. Rather, anxiety and panic may also occur after activation of CB1 receptors. The present review discusses three properties of the endocannabinoid system as an attempt to understand these diverse effects. First, this system typically functions 'on-demand', depending on environmental stimuli and on the emotional state of the organism. Second, it has a wide neuro-anatomical distribution, modulating brain regions with different functions in responses to aversive stimuli. Third, endocannabinoids regulate the release of other neurotransmitters that may have even opposing functions, such as GABA and glutamate. Further understanding of the temporal, spatial and functional characteristics of this system is necessary to clarify its role in emotional responses and will promote advances in its therapeutic exploitation. SN - 1369-1600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18422832/The_endocannabinoid_system:_emotion_learning_and_addiction_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00104.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -