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Affect, attention, or anticipatory arousal? Human blink startle modulation in forward and backward affective conditioning.
Int J Psychophysiol. 2008 Jul; 69(1):9-17.IJ

Abstract

Affect modulates the blink startle reflex in the picture-viewing paradigm, however, the process responsible for reflex modulation during conditional stimuli (CSs) that have acquired valence through affective conditioning remains unclear. In Experiment 1, neutral shapes (CSs) and valenced or neutral pictures (USs) were paired in a forward (CS-->US) manner. Pleasantness ratings supported affective learning of positive and negative valence. Post-acquisition, blink reflexes were larger during the pleasant and unpleasant CSs than during the neutral CS. Rather than affect, attention or anticipatory arousal were suggested as sources of startle modulation. Experiment 2 confirmed that affective learning in the picture-picture paradigm was not affected by whether the CS preceded the US. Pleasantness ratings and affective priming revealed similar extents of affective learning following forward, backward or simultaneous pairings of CSs and USs. Experiment 3 utilized a backward conditioning procedure (US-->CS) to minimize effects of US anticipation. Again, blink reflexes were larger during CSs paired with valenced USs regardless of US valence implicating attention rather than anticipatory arousal or affect as the process modulating startle in this paradigm.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. mallan@psy.uq.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18423918

Citation

Mallan, Kimberley M., et al. "Affect, Attention, or Anticipatory Arousal? Human Blink Startle Modulation in Forward and Backward Affective Conditioning." International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, vol. 69, no. 1, 2008, pp. 9-17.
Mallan KM, Lipp OV, Libera M. Affect, attention, or anticipatory arousal? Human blink startle modulation in forward and backward affective conditioning. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008;69(1):9-17.
Mallan, K. M., Lipp, O. V., & Libera, M. (2008). Affect, attention, or anticipatory arousal? Human blink startle modulation in forward and backward affective conditioning. International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 69(1), 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.02.005
Mallan KM, Lipp OV, Libera M. Affect, Attention, or Anticipatory Arousal? Human Blink Startle Modulation in Forward and Backward Affective Conditioning. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008;69(1):9-17. PubMed PMID: 18423918.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Affect, attention, or anticipatory arousal? Human blink startle modulation in forward and backward affective conditioning. AU - Mallan,Kimberley M, AU - Lipp,Ottmar V, AU - Libera,Marilia, Y1 - 2008/02/29/ PY - 2007/10/02/received PY - 2008/02/10/revised PY - 2008/02/15/accepted PY - 2008/4/22/pubmed PY - 2008/9/25/medline PY - 2008/4/22/entrez SP - 9 EP - 17 JF - International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology JO - Int J Psychophysiol VL - 69 IS - 1 N2 - Affect modulates the blink startle reflex in the picture-viewing paradigm, however, the process responsible for reflex modulation during conditional stimuli (CSs) that have acquired valence through affective conditioning remains unclear. In Experiment 1, neutral shapes (CSs) and valenced or neutral pictures (USs) were paired in a forward (CS-->US) manner. Pleasantness ratings supported affective learning of positive and negative valence. Post-acquisition, blink reflexes were larger during the pleasant and unpleasant CSs than during the neutral CS. Rather than affect, attention or anticipatory arousal were suggested as sources of startle modulation. Experiment 2 confirmed that affective learning in the picture-picture paradigm was not affected by whether the CS preceded the US. Pleasantness ratings and affective priming revealed similar extents of affective learning following forward, backward or simultaneous pairings of CSs and USs. Experiment 3 utilized a backward conditioning procedure (US-->CS) to minimize effects of US anticipation. Again, blink reflexes were larger during CSs paired with valenced USs regardless of US valence implicating attention rather than anticipatory arousal or affect as the process modulating startle in this paradigm. SN - 0167-8760 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18423918/Affect_attention_or_anticipatory_arousal_Human_blink_startle_modulation_in_forward_and_backward_affective_conditioning_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167-8760(08)00056-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -