Progestogen for preventing miscarriage.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16CD
Progesterone, a female sex hormone, is known to induce secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilised egg. It has been suggested that a causative factor in many cases of miscarriage may be inadequate secretion of progesterone. Therefore, progestogens have been used, beginning in the first trimester of pregnancy, in an attempt to prevent spontaneous miscarriage.
To determine the efficacy and safety of progestogens as a preventative therapy against miscarriage.
We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (January 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2006), EMBASE (1980 to June 2006), CINAHL (1982 to June 2006), NHMRC Clinical Trials Register (June 2006) and Meta-Register (June 2006). We searched references from relevant articles, attempting to contact authors where necessary, and contacted experts in the field for unpublished works.
Randomised or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing progestogens with placebo or no treatment given in an effort to prevent miscarriage.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Two review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data.
Fifteen trials (2118 women) are included. The meta-analysis of all women, regardless of gravidity and number of previous miscarriages, showed no statistically significant difference in the risk of miscarriage between progestogen and placebo or no treatment groups (Peto odds ratio (Peto OR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.24) and no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse effect in either mother or baby. In a subgroup analysis of three trials involving women who had recurrent miscarriages (three or more consecutive miscarriages), progestogen treatment showed a statistically significant decrease in miscarriage rate compared to placebo or no treatment (Peto OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.70). No statistically significant differences were found between the route of administration of progestogen (oral, intramuscular, vaginal) versus placebo or no treatment.