The effect of pentoxifylline on proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Sep; 52(3):454-63.AJ
Pentoxifylline is a potential therapeutic agent for diabetic kidney disease because it has anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and hemorheological properties.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
SETTING, POPULATION, & INTERVENTION
Adult patients with diabetic kidney disease who received oral pentoxifylline.
SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES
We searched bibliographic databases for trials involving pentoxifylline that reported proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, or blood pressure.
The primary outcome measure was the effect of pentoxifylline on proteinuria stratified by whether pentoxifylline was compared with renin-angiotensin system blockade.
10 studies including a total of 476 participants with a median duration of 6 months were identified. Pentoxifylline significantly decreased proteinuria (weighted mean difference, -278 mg/d of protein; 95% confidence interval [CI], -398 to -159; P < 0.001) compared with placebo or usual care. Compared with captopril, the decrease in proteinuria with pentoxifylline was similar (weighted mean difference, 0 mg/d of protein; 95% CI, -17 to 18; P = 0.9). Secondary analysis showed that patients with microalbuminuria had a nonsignificant decrease in protein excretion (weighted mean difference, -87 mg/d; 95% CI, -201 to 27; P = 0.1), whereas those with overt proteinuria (protein > 300 mg/d) had a significant decrease (weighted mean difference, -502 mg/d; 95% CI, -805 to -198; P = 0.001). No significant changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure or glomerular filtration rate were found.
Quality scores of studies were low, and there was significant heterogeneity.
Available evidence suggests that pentoxifylline may decrease proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. To confirm these findings, large high-quality studies are required.