Physico-chemical analysis of tannery solid waste and structural characterization of its isolated humic acids after composting.J Hazard Mater. 2008 Dec 30; 160(2-3):448-55.JH
In Marrakech, solid by-products from tanneries are highly polluting, generating large amounts of nitrogenous and organic matter. In the present study composting is tested as a cost-effective method for waste management to overcome many of the environmental hazards and produce a stable, rich material for soil fertilization. Two composting trials were conducted after neutralization by ammonia or lime. The aim of the neutralization was to avoid the antimicrobial effects of the acidity in the tannery waste, thus ensuring correct composting. Different techniques such as elemental analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy were applied to analyse humic acids isolated from raw and composted materials, and to monitor the process of tannery waste composting, and the stability and maturity of the final product according to the means of neutralization. Comparison of data showed similar behaviour in both trials, but the composting process appeared to be more complete following neutralization with lime. The C, H and N content decreased, while the O increased. The FTIR and 13C NMR spectra show the decrease of aliphatic compounds demonstrated by the reduction of absorbance around 2922cm(-1) and of the resonance in the C-alkyl area around 0-55ppm. The humic acids newly formed during composting were richer in the O-N alkyl and oxidized aromatic structures that increased almost twofold on composting after neutralization with lime. The first principal component axis PC1 (54%) separated C-aliphatic, C-carboxylic and other less stable and less polycondensed compounds such as polyphenols from the more polycondensed O-N alkyl and oxidized C-aromatic compounds.