Cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of morphine and its four metabolites in human urine.Electrophoresis. 2008 Jun; 29(11):2340-7.E
A cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping micellar EKC (CSEI-Sweep-MEKC) was established to analyze morphine and its four metabolites, including codeine, normorphine (NM), morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). After SPE, the urine samples were analyzed by this CE method. The phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 2.5) containing 30% methanol was first filled into an uncoated fused-silica capillary (40 cm, 50 microm id), then a high-conductivity buffer (120 mM phosphate, 10.3 kPa for 99.9 s) followed. The pretreated urine sample was loaded by electrokinetic injection (10 kV, 600 s). The stacking and separation were performed by using phosphate buffer (25 mM, pH 2.5) containing 22% methanol and 100 mM SDS at -20 kV, and detected at 200 nm. During method validation, calibration plots were linear (r > or = 0.998) over a range of 30-3000 ng/mL for morphine, NM, and codeine, 100-2000 ng/mL for M6G, and 80-3200 ng/mL for M3G. The LODs (S/N = 5, sampling 600 s at 10 kV) were 10 ng/mL for morphine, NM, and codeine, 35 ng/mL for M6G, and 25 ng/mL for M3G. This stacking CE method could increase 2500-fold sensitivity of codeine, when comparing with CZE. Five addicts' urine specimens were analyzed. Their results were compared with those of LC-MS-MS, and showed good coincidence. This method could be feasible for monitoring morphine and its metabolites in forensic interest and pharmacokinetic investigations.