Metabolic syndrome and self-reported history of kidney stones: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994.Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 51(5):741-7AJ
Metabolic syndrome affects approximately 25% of the American population. Components of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, were associated with kidney stone disease, but no published large-scale study examined the association between metabolic syndrome and history of kidney stones.
Cross-sectional analysis. The American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute statement on metabolic syndrome was used to define metabolic syndrome.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS
A national probability sample of the US population National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 20 years and older.
Metabolic syndrome as defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS
Self-reported history of kidney stones.
Of all adults older than 20 years, 4.7% reported a history of kidney stones. The prevalence of self-reported history of kidney stones increased with the number of metabolic syndrome traits from 3% with 0 traits to 7.5% with 3 traits to 9.8% with 5 traits. After adjustment for age and other covariates, the presence of 2 or more traits significantly increased the odds of self-reported kidney stone disease. The presence of 4 or more traits was associated with an approximate 2-fold increase in odds of self-reported kidney stone disease.
Cross-sectional design, absence of dietary data.
Metabolic syndrome traits are associated with a self-reported history of kidney stones. This association should be verified in prospective studies.