Excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep episodes in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease.J Neurol Sci. 2008 Aug 15; 271(1-2):47-52.JN
In Parkinson's disease (PD), sudden unexpected sleep episodes and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) while driving and engaging in social activities are important problems. We conducted a multi-center study to clarify the prevalence and contributing factor of EDS and sleep episodes in Japanese patients with PD. We evaluated 188 patients with PD (85 men, 103 women) and 144 age-matched controls for sleepiness. EDS was defined as an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score of >or=10. ESS score was significantly higher (6.6+/-4.2 vs. 5.6+/-3.8) and prevalence of sleep episodes was higher in PD than in controls (6.4% vs. 0.7%). PD patients with EDS were more likely to have sleep episodes (22.5% vs. 2.0%), higher score for disease severity and depressive symptoms, and on higher dose of dopaminergic agents than those without EDS. However, there were no differences in nocturnal disturbances between the two groups. ESS score was not different between patients taking ergot and non-ergot dopamine agonists. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that mental state, total dose of dopaminergic agents, and ESS score were significant predictors of sleep episodes. ESS score of >or=10 had 75% sensitivity and 82.4% specificity for sleep episodes. These results suggest that sleepiness in PD is dependent on disease itself and dopaminergic treatment rather than nocturnal disturbances.