Acute effects of N-(2-propylpentanoyl)urea on hippocampal amino acid neurotransmitters in pilocarpine-induced seizure in rats.Epilepsy Res. 2008 May; 79(2-3):151-7.ER
The present study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant activity as well as the effects on the level of hippocampal amino acid neurotransmitters (glutamate, aspartate, glycine and GABA) of N-(2-propylpentanoyl)urea (VPU) in comparison to its parent compound, valproic acid (VPA). VPU was more potent than VPA, exhibiting the median effective dose (ED(50)) of 49 mg/kg in protecting rats against pilocarpine-induced seizure whereas the corresponding value for VPA was 322 mg/kg. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated that an intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine induced a pronounced increment of hippocampal glutamate and aspartate whereas no significant change was observed on the level of glycine and GABA. Pretreatment with either VPU (50 and 100 mg/kg) or VPA (300 and 600 mg/kg) completely abolished pilocarpine-evoked increases in extracellular glutamate and aspartate. In addition, a statistically significant reduction was also observed on the level of GABA and glycine but less than a drastic reduction of glutamate and aspartate level. Based on the finding that VPU and VPA could protect the animals against pilocarpine-induced seizure it is suggested that the reduction of inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters was comparatively minor and offset by a pronounced reduction of glutamate and aspartate. Therefore, like VPA, the finding that VPU could drastically reduce pilocarpine-induced increases in glutamate and aspartate should account, at least partly, for its anticonvulsant activity observed in pilocarpine-induced seizure in experimental animals. Some other mechanism than those being reported herein should be further investigated.