Angiotensin II and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synergistically promote monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression: roles of NF-kappaB, p38, and reactive oxygen species.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Jun; 294(6):H2879-88.AJ
We examined whether ANG II and TNF-alpha cooperatively induce vascular inflammation using the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as a marker of vascular inflammation. ANG II and TNF-alpha stimulated MCP-1 expression in a synergistic manner in vascular smooth muscle cells. ANG II-induced MCP-1 expression was potently inhibited to a nonstimulated basal level by blockade of the p38-dependent pathway but only partially inhibited by blockade of the NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. In contrast, TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 expression was potently suppressed by blockade of NF-kappaB activation but only modestly suppressed by blockade of p38 activation. ANG II- and TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB- and p38-dependent pathways was partially inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors of ROS production. Furthermore, ANG II- and TNF-alpha-stimulated MCP-1 expression was partially suppressed by ROS inhibitors. We also examined whether endogenous ANG II and TNF-alpha cooperatively promote vascular inflammation in vivo using a wire injury model of the rat femoral artery. Blockade of both ANG II and TNF-alpha further suppressed neointimal formation, macrophage infiltration, and MCP-1 expression in an additive manner compared with blockade of ANG II or TNF-alpha alone. These results suggested that ANG II and TNF-alpha synergistically stimulate MCP-1 expression via the utilization of distinct intracellular signaling pathways (p38- and NFkappaB-dependent pathways) and that these pathways are activated in ROS-dependent and -independent manners. These results also suggest that ANG II and TNF-alpha cooperatively stimulate vascular inflammation in vivo as well as in vitro.