Stability of executive function deficits in girls with ADHD: a prospective longitudinal followup study into adolescence.Dev Neuropsychol. 2008; 33(1):44-61.DN
Neuropsychological deficits in the executive system are major sources of morbidity in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study of girls with (N = 140) and without (N = 122) ADHD, aged 6-18 years at baseline. Neuropsychological functioning was assessed using standard neuropsychological testing assessing executive functions (EFs). Girls with ADHD were significantly more impaired than controls in all neuropsychological domains except set shifting. Despite variability in the stability of individual domains of EFs, the majority (79%) of girls with ADHD that met the categorical definition of executive function deficits (EFDs, defined as two or more EF tasks impaired) at baseline continued to have EFDs at the five-year followup. These findings document the stability of EFDs in girls with ADHD from childhood into adolescence.