Exendin-4 induction of Egr-1 expression in INS-1 beta-cells: interaction of SRF, not YY1, with SRE site of rat Egr-1 promoter.J Cell Biochem 2008; 104(6):2261-71JC
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces several immediate early response genes such as c-fos, c-jun, and early growth response-1 (Egr-1), which are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. We recently reported that exendin-4 (EX-4), a potent GLP-1 agonist, upregulated Egr-1 expression via phosphorylation of CREB, a transcription factor in INS-1 beta-cells. This study was designed to investigate the role of another transcription factors, serum response factor (SRF) and Yin Yang-1 (YY1), in EX-4-induced Egr-1 expression. EX-4 significantly increased Egr-1 mRNA and subsequently its protein level. EX-4-induced Egr-1 expression was inhibited by pretreatment with a PKA inhibitor, H-89, and an MEK inhibitor, PD 98059. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of PKA and ERK1 resulted in significant reduction of EX-4-induced Egr-1 expression. Promoter analyses showed that SRE clusters were essential for Egr-1 transcription, and YY1 overexpression did not affect Egr-1 promoter activity. EMSA results demonstrated that EX-4-induced transient increase in DNA-protein complex on SRE site, and that both SRF and phospho-SRF were bound to this site. Treatment of either YY1 consensus oligonucleotide or YY1 antibody did not effect the change of density or migration of the DNA-protein complex. Collectively, EX-4-induced Egr-1 expression is largely dependent on cAMP-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, and EX-4 induces Egr-1 transcription via the interaction of SRF and phospho-SRF to SRE sites.