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Acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 May 01; 232(9):1310-20.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS

48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups.

RESULTS

Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 micromol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 microU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18447775

Citation

Durocher, Lawren L., et al. "Acid-base and Hormonal Abnormalities in Dogs With Naturally Occurring Diabetes Mellitus." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 232, no. 9, 2008, pp. 1310-20.
Durocher LL, Hinchcliff KW, DiBartola SP, et al. Acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232(9):1310-20.
Durocher, L. L., Hinchcliff, K. W., DiBartola, S. P., & Johnson, S. E. (2008). Acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 232(9), 1310-20. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.232.9.1310
Durocher LL, et al. Acid-base and Hormonal Abnormalities in Dogs With Naturally Occurring Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 May 1;232(9):1310-20. PubMed PMID: 18447775.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. AU - Durocher,Lawren L, AU - Hinchcliff,Kenneth W, AU - DiBartola,Stephen P, AU - Johnson,Susan E, PY - 2008/5/2/pubmed PY - 2008/5/20/medline PY - 2008/5/2/entrez SP - 1310 EP - 20 JF - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association JO - J Am Vet Med Assoc VL - 232 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups. RESULTS: Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 micromol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 microU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations. SN - 0003-1488 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18447775/Acid_base_and_hormonal_abnormalities_in_dogs_with_naturally_occurring_diabetes_mellitus_ L2 - https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/10.2460/javma.232.9.1310?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -