Oral supplementation of lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in persons aged 60 years or older, with or without AMD.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Sep; 49(9):3864-9.IO
Increased dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA) was found to be associated with reduced risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of oral supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA on changes in serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin during supplementation in persons 60 years of age and older, with or without AMD.
Forty participants with AMD of various degrees of severity received lutein (10 mg) and zeaxanthin (2 mg) daily and were equally randomized to receive omega-3 LCPUFA (350 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and 650 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) or placebo for 6 months. Serum levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, and omega-3 LCPUFAs and macular pigment optical densities were measured at baseline, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months.
By month 6, the median serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin increased by two- to threefold compared with baseline. Increases in serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin did not differ by omega-3 LCPUFA treatment (P > 0.5). After 1 month, in the omega-3 LCPUFA-treated group, the median levels of DHA and EPA increased and the placebo group had no changes. At month 6, participants with AMD had a lower increase in serum lutein concentration than did those without AMD (P < 0.05).
The addition of omega-3 LCPUFA to oral supplementation of lutein/zeaxanthin did not change the serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. A long-term large clinical trial is necessary to investigate the benefits and adverse effects of these factors for the treatment of AMD.