Short and medium-term effects of two-phase olive mill waste application on olive grove production and soil properties under semiarid mediterranean conditions.Bioresour Technol. 2008 Nov; 99(17):7982-7.BT
A five-year field study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of oiled and de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW and DTPOMW, respectively) as soil amendment on a representative olive grove soil: a Cutanic Luvisol. Treatments included a non-amended control, TPOMW1, TPOMW2, DTPOMW1 and DTPOMW2 (30, 60, 27 and 54Mgha(-1) dry weight equivalent). Significant increases (P<0.05) in organic carbon, total N, available P and K, and aggregate stability were observed in the amended soils. Leaf analysis showed significant increases in N, P, and K concentrations in treated plots after the two first years of TPOMW or DTPOMW amendments. Also, a general increase in olive production was observed in the treated plots, this increase being higher in the TPOMW1 and DTPOMW1 treated soils. After five years of repeated TPOMW and DTPOMW application, the increase in yield was 29%, 9.8%, 30%, and 19% for TPOMW1, TPOMW2, DTPOMW1, and DTPOMW2, respectively. Raw TPOMW and DTPOMW have the potential to be valuable soil amendments and source of organic matter, with a positive effect on olive yield, and closing the cycle of residues-resources.