Prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid dysfunction in young Brazilian patients with type 1 diabetes.Pediatr Diabetes 2008; 9(4 Pt 1):272-6PD
Patients with an autoimmune condition are known to be at higher risk of developing other autoimmune disorders. Type 1 diabetes may be associated with additional autoimmune disorders including autoimmune thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes from northeastern Brazil as well as their significance for the development of thyroid disorders. The study design was cross-sectional and descriptive, analyzing young people with a previous type 1 diabetes diagnosis. Two hundred and fourteen children and adolescents with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes were evaluated. Antibodies to thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) were determined in all patients and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The anti-TPO antibody test was positive in 54 out of the 214 patients studied, resulting in an overall prevalence of 25.2%. Among the anti-TPO-positive subjects, females were predominant (72%) over males (28%) (p < 0.001). A total of 55.5% patients with positive anti-TPO antibodies had abnormal TSH levels. Clinically significant hypothyroidism was found in 29.6% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 22.2% of patients with positive anti-TPO. Hyperthyroidism was present in only 3% of them. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with type 1 diabetes and the need for these patients of regular screening to make a precocious diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction.