Outcomes of combined superficial femoral endovascular revascularization and popliteal to distal bypass for patients with tissue loss.Ann Vasc Surg. 2008 May-Jun; 22(3):366-71.AV
Over the last 5 years there has been a significant shift toward lower limb revascularization using endoluminal techniques. However, in many instances endoluminal techniques alone are unable to salvage limbs that exhibit tissue loss. Many of these patients do not have adequate conduit for a long leg bypass, while tibial angioplasty does not appear to restore adequate perfusion to heal many significant foot lesions, making combined procedures attractive. However, previously available data evaluating combined endoluminal and bypass procedures have been too anatomically heterogeneous to be easily applied to patients with infrainguinal disease and tissue loss. From January 2002 to December 2005, intraoperative superficial femoral artery (SFA) percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with selective stenting combined with simultaneous popliteal to distal vein bypass was evaluated in 22 limbs of 22 patients with isolated infrainguinal disease and tissue loss. There were 12 men and 10 women, average age 69. All the patients were diabetic, all had tissue loss, and three had end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Four patients underwent common femoral endarterectomy at the time of the SFA PTA; all had the PTA performed first, with antegrade punctures and flow maintained. Fourteen patients had PTA without stenting, eight had self-expanding stents placed for residual stenosis or dissection. There were no failures, with three TASC A, 13 TASC B, and six TASC C lesions addressed. The origin of the bypass was the above-knee popliteal in eight patients and the below-knee popliteal in 14 patients. The target vessel was the dorsalis pedis in six patients, the posterior tibial at the malleolus in three, the proximal posterior tibial in five, the peroneal in five, and the anterior tibial in three. The conduit was greater saphenous vein in 16 cases, femoral vein in three cases, and arm vein in three cases. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 4 years. The primary patency rate was 21/22 (95%), and the secondary patency rate was 22/22 (100%). There was one amputation for ongoing gangrene in an ESRD patient with a patent bypass, resulting in an early limb salvage rate of 95%. For patients with inadequate conduit and tissue loss secondary to multilevel infrainguinal disease, simultaneous angioplasty with selective stenting of the SFA followed by distal vein bypass is a viable long-term solution that allows for limb salvage. Simultaneous performance is not associated with increased morbidity and decreases overall hospital use.