Immunophenotypical characterization of monocytes in canine distemper virus infection.Vet Microbiol. 2008 Oct 15; 131(3-4):237-46.VM
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection induces multifocal demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). It is thought that the resident macrophages of the CNS, the microglia, as well as invading monocytes associated with the inflammatory reaction may play a central role in the demyelinating process. To evaluate changes in peripheral monocytes in CDV infection their immunophenotype was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of an experimental CDV infection in dogs. The highest number of CDV-infected monocytes was found in dogs developing demyelinating lesions. In CD18, CD45, CD44, and CD14 neither up- nor down-regulation was observed. Marked up-regulation occurred in a number of surface molecules including CD1c, B7-1 and B7-2, MHC I, and CD11b. Peak expression was found at 4-5 weeks post-infection (PI), regardless of clinical outcome. All these molecules play an important role in the host's immune response, notably antigen presentation and cell adhesion. These results demonstrate that CDV infection in vivo may enhance several macrophage functions. This could lead to more effective clearance of the virus but may also increase demyelination through a bystander effect in animals that accumulated significant amounts of CDV in the CNS.