Ameliorative effects of amiloride and pralidoxime in chronic constriction injury and vincristine induced painful neuropathy in rats.Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun 10; 587(1-3):104-11.EJ
The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of clinically available drugs, with Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchange inhibitory actions, in chronic constriction injury and vincristine induced painful neuropathy in rats. Sciatic nerve ligation and vincristine treatment (50 microg/kg for 10 days) was employed to induce neuropathy in rats. Paw pressure, von Frey hair, acetone drop, and tail heat immersion tests were performed to assess degree of mechano-hyperalgesia, mechano-allodynia, cold chemical allodynia and spinal thermal sensation respectively. Axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve was assessed histopathologically. The levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and total calcium were determined to assess biochemical alterations. Amiloride (15 mg/kg i.p.), Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, and pralidoxime (20 mg/kg i.p.), Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, were administered for 10 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery or vincristine administration. Sciatic nerve ligation and vincristine treatment resulted in significant axonal degeneration, development of mechano-hyperalgesia, mechano-allodynia, cold chemical allodynia and spinal heat hyperalgesia and also resulted in rise in thio-barbituric acid reactive species, total calcium and decrease in reduced glutathione levels. Administration of amiloride and pralidoxime attenuated chronic constriction injury and vincristine induced axonal degeneration and reduction of nociceptive threshold along with reduction in calcium levels and oxidative stress. The observed anti-nociceptive effects of amiloride and pralidoxime may possibly be attributed to inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchangers with subsequent decrease in Ca2+ ions and oxidative stress.