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Stress at three-month immunization: parents' and infants' salivary cortisol response in relation to the use of pacifier and oral glucose.
Eur J Pain. 2009 Feb; 13(2):202-8.EJ

Abstract

The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether the salivary cortisol response could be dampened during a routine three-month immunization if the infant received sweet-tasting solution in combination with a pacifier and (2) stress experienced by parents during immunization of the infant. Ninety-eight infants were included into one of four intervention groups: 'glucose and pacifier', 'water and pacifier', 'glucose', or 'water'. Saliva was collected before and 30 min after the immunization. Infants' crying-time and parents' self-reported stress (VAS) were measured before and after immunization. Infants in the 'pacifier and glucose' group had a significantly smaller change in salivary cortisol than infants in the other groups (F(3,72)=3.1, p<0.05). In the 'glucose and pacifier' group the median salivary cortisol levels decreased 33% after the immunization. In the 'water and pacifier', 'glucose', and 'water' group median cortisol increased with 50%, 42%, and 8%, respectively. No significant differences in crying-time were observed between the intervention groups. If the infant cried before the immunization, the crying-time during the immunization was longer (p<0.01) and cortisol increased more (p<0.05). Median cortisol levels for parents decreased after the immunization (p<0.01). Median VAS increased 50% (p<0.0001) after immunization. First time parents rated higher stress on VAS before immunization (p<0.01). Parents' change in cortisol and VAS were significantly related to infants' crying time. In conclusion, the combination of oral glucose and pacifier dampen infants' salivary cortisol in response to the three-month immunization.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden. evalotte.morelius@lio.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18486508

Citation

Mörelius, Evalotte, et al. "Stress at Three-month Immunization: Parents' and Infants' Salivary Cortisol Response in Relation to the Use of Pacifier and Oral Glucose." European Journal of Pain (London, England), vol. 13, no. 2, 2009, pp. 202-8.
Mörelius E, Theodorsson E, Nelson N. Stress at three-month immunization: parents' and infants' salivary cortisol response in relation to the use of pacifier and oral glucose. Eur J Pain. 2009;13(2):202-8.
Mörelius, E., Theodorsson, E., & Nelson, N. (2009). Stress at three-month immunization: parents' and infants' salivary cortisol response in relation to the use of pacifier and oral glucose. European Journal of Pain (London, England), 13(2), 202-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpain.2008.03.016
Mörelius E, Theodorsson E, Nelson N. Stress at Three-month Immunization: Parents' and Infants' Salivary Cortisol Response in Relation to the Use of Pacifier and Oral Glucose. Eur J Pain. 2009;13(2):202-8. PubMed PMID: 18486508.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Stress at three-month immunization: parents' and infants' salivary cortisol response in relation to the use of pacifier and oral glucose. AU - Mörelius,Evalotte, AU - Theodorsson,Elvar, AU - Nelson,Nina, Y1 - 2008/05/16/ PY - 2007/10/01/received PY - 2008/03/10/revised PY - 2008/03/31/accepted PY - 2008/5/20/pubmed PY - 2009/4/11/medline PY - 2008/5/20/entrez SP - 202 EP - 8 JF - European journal of pain (London, England) JO - Eur J Pain VL - 13 IS - 2 N2 - The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether the salivary cortisol response could be dampened during a routine three-month immunization if the infant received sweet-tasting solution in combination with a pacifier and (2) stress experienced by parents during immunization of the infant. Ninety-eight infants were included into one of four intervention groups: 'glucose and pacifier', 'water and pacifier', 'glucose', or 'water'. Saliva was collected before and 30 min after the immunization. Infants' crying-time and parents' self-reported stress (VAS) were measured before and after immunization. Infants in the 'pacifier and glucose' group had a significantly smaller change in salivary cortisol than infants in the other groups (F(3,72)=3.1, p<0.05). In the 'glucose and pacifier' group the median salivary cortisol levels decreased 33% after the immunization. In the 'water and pacifier', 'glucose', and 'water' group median cortisol increased with 50%, 42%, and 8%, respectively. No significant differences in crying-time were observed between the intervention groups. If the infant cried before the immunization, the crying-time during the immunization was longer (p<0.01) and cortisol increased more (p<0.05). Median cortisol levels for parents decreased after the immunization (p<0.01). Median VAS increased 50% (p<0.0001) after immunization. First time parents rated higher stress on VAS before immunization (p<0.01). Parents' change in cortisol and VAS were significantly related to infants' crying time. In conclusion, the combination of oral glucose and pacifier dampen infants' salivary cortisol in response to the three-month immunization. SN - 1532-2149 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18486508/Stress_at_three_month_immunization:_parents'_and_infants'_salivary_cortisol_response_in_relation_to_the_use_of_pacifier_and_oral_glucose_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1090-3801(08)00076-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -