Development of a solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with microelectron-capture detection method for a multiresidue analysis of pesticides in bovine milk.Anal Chim Acta. 2008 Jun 09; 617(1-2):37-50.AC
A simple and rapid method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique followed by gas chromatography with microelectron-capture detection (GC-microECD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of more than 30 pesticides (pyrethroids and organochlorinated among others) in milk. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SPME for the determination of pyrethroid pesticides in milk. Negative matrix effects due to the complexity and lipophility of the studied matrix were reduced by diluting the sample with distilled water. A 2(5-1) fractional factorial design was performed to assess the influence of several factors (type of fiber coating, sampling mode, stirring, extraction temperature, and addition of sodium chloride) on the SPME procedure and to determine the optimal extraction conditions. After optimization of all the significant variables and interactions, the recommended procedure was established as follows: DSPME (using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/divinylbenzene (DVB) coating) of 1 mL of milk sample diluted with Milli-Q water (1:10 dilution ratio), at 100 degrees C, under stirring for 30 min. The proposed method showed good linearity and high sensitivity, with limits of detection (LOD) at the sub-ng mL(-1) level. Within a day and among days precisions were also evaluated (R.S.D.<15%). One of the most important attainments of this work was the use of external calibration with milk-matched standards to quantify the levels of the target analytes. The method was tested with liquid and powdered milk samples with different fat contents covering the whole commercial range. The efficiency of the extraction process was studied at several analyte concentration levels obtaining high recoveries (>80% in most cases) for different types of full-fat milks. The optimized procedure was validated with powdered milk certified reference material, which was quantified using external calibration and standard addition protocols. Finally, the DSPME-GC-microECD methodology was applied to the analysis of milk samples collected in farms of dairy cattle from NW Spain.