Complex actions of 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate on store-operated calcium entry.J Biol Chem. 2008 Jul 11; 283(28):19265-73.JB
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is likely the most common mode of regulated influx of Ca2+ into cells. However, only a limited number of pharmacological agents have been shown to modulate this process. 2-Aminoethyldiphenyl borate (2-APB) is a widely used experimental tool that activates and then inhibits SOCE and the underlying calcium release-activated Ca2+ current (I CRAC). The mechanism by which depleted stores activates SOCE involves complex cellular movements of an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor, STIM1, which redistributes to puncta near the plasma membrane and, in some manner, activates plasma membrane channels comprising Orai1, -2, and -3 subunits. We show here that 2-APB blocks puncta formation of fluorescently tagged STIM1 in HEK293 cells. Accordingly, 2-APB also inhibited SOCE and I(CRAC)-like currents in cells co-expressing STIM1 with the CRAC channel subunit, Orai1, with similar potency. However, 2-APB inhibited STIM1 puncta formation less well in cells co-expressing Orai1, indicating that the inhibitory effects of 2-APB are not solely dependent upon STIM1 reversal. Further, 2-APB only partially inhibited SOCE and current in cells co-expressing STIM1 and Orai2 and activated sustained currents in HEK293 cells expressing Orai3 and STIM1. Interestingly, the Orai3-dependent currents activated by 2-APB showed large outward currents at potentials greater than +50 mV. Finally, Orai3, and to a lesser extent Orai1, could be directly activated by 2-APB, independently of internal Ca2+ stores and STIM1. These data reveal novel and complex actions of 2-APB effects on SOCE that can be attributed to effects on both STIM1 as well as Orai channel subunits.