Forces in anterior cruciate ligament during simulated weight-bearing flexion with anterior and internal rotational tibial load.J Biomech. 2008; 41(9):1855-61.JB
This study determined in-vitro anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) force patterns and investigated the effect of external tibial loads on the ACL force patterns during simulated weight-bearing knee flexions. Nine human cadaveric knee specimens were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator, and weight-bearing knee flexions with a 100N of ground reaction force were simulated; while a robotic/universal force sensor (UFS) system was used to provide external tibial loads during the movement. Three external tibial loading conditions were simulated, including no external tibial load (termed BW only), a 50N anterior tibial force (ATF), and a 5Nm internal rotation tibial torque (ITT). The tibial and femoral kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system. These movement paths were then accurately reproduced on a robotic testing system, and the in-situ force in the ACL was determined via the principle of superposition. The results showed that the ATF significantly increased the in-situ ACL force by up to 60% during 0-55 degrees of flexion, while the ITT did not. The magnitude of ACL forces decreased with increasing flexion angle for all loading conditions. The tibial anterior translation was not affected by the application of ATF, whereas the tibial internal rotation was significantly increased by the application of ITT. These data indicate that, in a weight-bearing knee flexion, ACL provides substantial resistance to the externally applied ATF but not to the ITT.