Signaling pathways of bisphenol A-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neuronal cells: role of calcium-induced reactive oxygen species, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nuclear factor-kappaB.J Neurosci Res. 2008 Oct; 86(13):2932-42.JN
In the present study, we investigated the neurotoxicity of bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis-(4 hydroxyphenyl) propane] and the underlying mechanisms of action in mouse hippocampal HT-22 cells. BPA, known to be a xenoestrogen, is used in the production of water bottles, cans, and teeth suture materials. BPA-treated HT-22 cells showed lower cell viability than did controls at concentrations of BPA over 100 microM. BPA induced apoptotic cell death as indicated by staining with Hoechst 33258, costaining with Annexin V/propidium iodide, and activation of caspase 3. BPA regulated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing intracellular calcium. BPA activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors for calcium, ROS, ERK, and JNK decreased BPA-induced cell death; however, inhibitor for NF-kappaB increased BPA-induced cell death. The results suggest that calcium, ROS, ERK, and JNK are involved in BPA-induced apoptotic cell death in HT-22 cells. In contrast, an NF-kappaB cascade was activated for survival signaling after BPA treatment.