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Review: Genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Pediatr Psychol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 33(10):1085-99.JP

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The intent of this review is to provide an overview for the practicing psychologist/psychiatrist regarding the complexities of and the most recent advances made in the study of the genetic basis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

METHODS

We review a variety of concepts including: (a) complexities involved in studying the genetics of ADHD, (b) evidence for a primarily genetic component of ADHD, (c) evidence suggesting that there are only a few genes with major effects contributing to ADHD, (d) identification of the best candidate genes, (e) linkage analysis for the identification of novel candidate genes, and (f) data on gene-environment interactions.

RESULTS

It is now generally accepted that ADHD has a biological and even primarily genetic basis. However, despite the identification of several candidate genes, none of them seems to have a substantial effect and the exact etiology underlying ADHD has remained elusive. Genome-wide linkage analysis can help in the identification of novel candidate genes. While several independent groups have initiated these studies, we await further details and specific genes from fine-mapping studies. Most recently, researchers have been trying to identify gene by environment interactions to help understand ADHD. Replication of positive findings will be essential in teasing out these combinatorial influences.

CONCLUSIONS

Ideally, one day specific genes with major effects and specific risk factors with which they interact will be identified and we will be able to implement personalized medicine. Knowledge of such genes will allow us to identify specific diagnostic biological markers. In addition, defining the target genes is the first step in developing novel drug therapies to treat the ADHD symptoms that lead to impairment. Furthermore, such markers could also identify at risk individuals at a younger age in order to implement treatments sooner to decrease the severity of ADHD symptoms or even to prevent future ADHD symptomatology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Texas Institute for Genomic Medicine, 2121 W Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA. dwallis@tigm.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18522996

Citation

Wallis, Deeann, et al. "Review: Genetics of Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder." Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 33, no. 10, 2008, pp. 1085-99.
Wallis D, Russell HF, Muenke M. Review: Genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr Psychol. 2008;33(10):1085-99.
Wallis, D., Russell, H. F., & Muenke, M. (2008). Review: Genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33(10), 1085-99. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsn049
Wallis D, Russell HF, Muenke M. Review: Genetics of Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder. J Pediatr Psychol. 2008;33(10):1085-99. PubMed PMID: 18522996.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Review: Genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Wallis,Deeann, AU - Russell,Heather F, AU - Muenke,Maximilian, Y1 - 2008/06/03/ PY - 2008/6/5/pubmed PY - 2009/3/24/medline PY - 2008/6/5/entrez SP - 1085 EP - 99 JF - Journal of pediatric psychology JO - J Pediatr Psychol VL - 33 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The intent of this review is to provide an overview for the practicing psychologist/psychiatrist regarding the complexities of and the most recent advances made in the study of the genetic basis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We review a variety of concepts including: (a) complexities involved in studying the genetics of ADHD, (b) evidence for a primarily genetic component of ADHD, (c) evidence suggesting that there are only a few genes with major effects contributing to ADHD, (d) identification of the best candidate genes, (e) linkage analysis for the identification of novel candidate genes, and (f) data on gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: It is now generally accepted that ADHD has a biological and even primarily genetic basis. However, despite the identification of several candidate genes, none of them seems to have a substantial effect and the exact etiology underlying ADHD has remained elusive. Genome-wide linkage analysis can help in the identification of novel candidate genes. While several independent groups have initiated these studies, we await further details and specific genes from fine-mapping studies. Most recently, researchers have been trying to identify gene by environment interactions to help understand ADHD. Replication of positive findings will be essential in teasing out these combinatorial influences. CONCLUSIONS: Ideally, one day specific genes with major effects and specific risk factors with which they interact will be identified and we will be able to implement personalized medicine. Knowledge of such genes will allow us to identify specific diagnostic biological markers. In addition, defining the target genes is the first step in developing novel drug therapies to treat the ADHD symptoms that lead to impairment. Furthermore, such markers could also identify at risk individuals at a younger age in order to implement treatments sooner to decrease the severity of ADHD symptoms or even to prevent future ADHD symptomatology. SN - 1465-735X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18522996/Review:_Genetics_of_attention_deficit/hyperactivity_disorder_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jpepsy/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jpepsy/jsn049 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -