Quality of nutrition and health knowledge in subjects with diagnosed cardio-vascular diseases in the Polish population--National Multicentre Health Survey (WOBASZ).Kardiol Pol. 2008 May; 66(5):507-13, discussion 514.KP
Dietary treatment plays an important role in prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A significant factor that influences the fulfilment of dietary recommendations is also the knowledge of non-pharmacological methods of CVD prevention.
To evaluate the health knowledge and the dietary behaviours among subjects with established CVD and to assess how many of them meet recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for secondary prevention.
Within the framework of the National Multicentre Health Survey (WOBASZ), a representative sample of 7257 persons of the whole Polish population aged 20-74 was screened in years 2003-2005. A subsample of 803 persons (males--430, females--373) with a clinical history of myocardial infarction and/or coronary artery disease and/or heart failure and/or stroke and/or arrhythmia and/or PCI and/or coronary bypass surgery was analysed. Nutrients intake and health knowledge were assessed according to the study protocol.
The evaluated group was characterised by a high prevalence of persons with obesity (70%), ex-smokers (49% in males and 22% in females) and smokers (27% and 13%, respectively). The proportion of patients with knowledge of the following CVD prevention methods was very low: weight reduction (33 vs. 35% males vs. females), increase of physical activity (54 vs. 52% respectively), salt reduction (23 vs. 21%), reducing fat intake (37 vs. 36%), and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (23 vs. 23%). The low level of dietary knowledge was reflected by dietary behaviours. A low fat and low cholesterol diet was reported only by every 5th patient and a low calorie diet by every 100th. Adding salt to previously seasoned dishes was reported by 25% of males and 19% of females. Respectively, 49 and 32% consumed meat products with visible fat. The prevalence of persons whose diet met RDA was unsatisfactory. The degree of fulfilment of recommendations as to anti-oxidant vitamins (A, C and E), proteins, cholesterol and fruits and vegetables was relatively the best; however, also in this case only 40-80% of respondents followed the recommendations. The intake of fats, fatty acids and carbohydrates was less satisfactory. The correct amount of those nutritional components was consumed only by 20-39% of assessed patients. The worst situation was noted as to the intake of B vitamins, calcium and magnesium. The recommendations for those vitamins and minerals was followed only by 11-37% of evaluated persons.
In the Polish population subjects with established CVD are characterised by a low level of knowledge of non-pharmacological methods of preventing heart diseases and low quality of nutrition.