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Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia.
Bull World Health Organ. 2008 May; 86(5):408-16.BW

Abstract

Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million), with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each). Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Croatian Centre for Global Health, University of Split Medical School, Split, Croatia. irudan@hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18545744

Citation

Rudan, Igor, et al. "Epidemiology and Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86, no. 5, 2008, pp. 408-16.
Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, et al. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(5):408-16.
Rudan, I., Boschi-Pinto, C., Biloglav, Z., Mulholland, K., & Campbell, H. (2008). Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86(5), 408-16.
Rudan I, et al. Epidemiology and Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(5):408-16. PubMed PMID: 18545744.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. AU - Rudan,Igor, AU - Boschi-Pinto,Cynthia, AU - Biloglav,Zrinka, AU - Mulholland,Kim, AU - Campbell,Harry, PY - 2007/10/18/received PY - 2008/03/05/accepted PY - 2008/6/12/pubmed PY - 2008/8/1/medline PY - 2008/6/12/entrez SP - 408 EP - 16 JF - Bulletin of the World Health Organization JO - Bull. World Health Organ. VL - 86 IS - 5 N2 - Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million), with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each). Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia. SN - 1564-0604 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18545744/Epidemiology_and_etiology_of_childhood_pneumonia_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/18545744/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -