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Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets, and consumer acceptance.
Isr Med Assoc J. 2008 Apr; 10(4):262-5.IM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

As high dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio may contribute to many western ailments, increasing n-3 PUFA in foods could be beneficial. The nutritional significance of n-3 PUFA-fortified egg vs. enzymatically competitive high n-6 PUFA diets is debatable.

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate the dietary contribution of 'field fortification' of eggs by adding n-3 PUFA to high n-6 PUFA hen feed and to assess whether it meets consumer preferences.

METHODS

Laying hens (n=3500) were fed n-3 PUFA-fortified (5% extruded linseed) feed or standard (control) feed for 5 weeks. Nutritional significance was evaluated for western (American, Israeli) populations.

RESULTS

Compared to regular (control) eggs, fortified eggs yielded a 3.8-fold increase in total n-3 PUFA, 6.4-fold alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), and 2.4-fold docohexaenoic acid 22:6). N-6:n-3 PUFA ratio decreased 3.6-fold, and n-6:n-3 long chain PUFA ratio (AA:DHA) 3.0-fold (P< 0.0003). Sensory evaluations were not significantly different. Egg cost increased by 1.5-3.0%. Fortified egg n-3 PUFA content averaged 14.3% of the current intake of Americans and 15.9% of Israelis - 9.8 and 10.6% of upper Dietary Reference Intakes, respectively. Egg DHA content averaged 33.7 and 41.4% of upper DRI. Current cholesterol intakes average 281 and 263 mg/day (median 214 and 184 mg/day) including 0.7 and 0.5 egg/day; reported hypercholesterolemia rates are 17.7 and 16.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Effective concentration and transformation of supplemental n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA from feed to egg substantially enhanced egg n-3 PUFA %DRI, particularly of DHA, critical for health but often deficient. Such land-based n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA fortification may be applicable to high n-6 PUFA diets, fitting within cholesterol limitations and market criteria. It may contribute to general health and specific requirements (i.e., pregnancy and lactation), with possibilities of wide accessibility and standardization.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Steyer School of Health Professions, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel. nivnet@inter.net.ilNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18548978

Citation

Shapira, Niva, et al. "Egg Fortification With N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA): Nutritional Benefits Versus High N-6 PUFA Western Diets, and Consumer Acceptance." The Israel Medical Association Journal : IMAJ, vol. 10, no. 4, 2008, pp. 262-5.
Shapira N, Weill P, Loewenbach R. Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets, and consumer acceptance. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10(4):262-5.
Shapira, N., Weill, P., & Loewenbach, R. (2008). Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets, and consumer acceptance. The Israel Medical Association Journal : IMAJ, 10(4), 262-5.
Shapira N, Weill P, Loewenbach R. Egg Fortification With N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA): Nutritional Benefits Versus High N-6 PUFA Western Diets, and Consumer Acceptance. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10(4):262-5. PubMed PMID: 18548978.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets, and consumer acceptance. AU - Shapira,Niva, AU - Weill,Pierre, AU - Loewenbach,Rachel, PY - 2008/6/14/pubmed PY - 2008/6/27/medline PY - 2008/6/14/entrez SP - 262 EP - 5 JF - The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ JO - Isr Med Assoc J VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: As high dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio may contribute to many western ailments, increasing n-3 PUFA in foods could be beneficial. The nutritional significance of n-3 PUFA-fortified egg vs. enzymatically competitive high n-6 PUFA diets is debatable. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the dietary contribution of 'field fortification' of eggs by adding n-3 PUFA to high n-6 PUFA hen feed and to assess whether it meets consumer preferences. METHODS: Laying hens (n=3500) were fed n-3 PUFA-fortified (5% extruded linseed) feed or standard (control) feed for 5 weeks. Nutritional significance was evaluated for western (American, Israeli) populations. RESULTS: Compared to regular (control) eggs, fortified eggs yielded a 3.8-fold increase in total n-3 PUFA, 6.4-fold alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), and 2.4-fold docohexaenoic acid 22:6). N-6:n-3 PUFA ratio decreased 3.6-fold, and n-6:n-3 long chain PUFA ratio (AA:DHA) 3.0-fold (P< 0.0003). Sensory evaluations were not significantly different. Egg cost increased by 1.5-3.0%. Fortified egg n-3 PUFA content averaged 14.3% of the current intake of Americans and 15.9% of Israelis - 9.8 and 10.6% of upper Dietary Reference Intakes, respectively. Egg DHA content averaged 33.7 and 41.4% of upper DRI. Current cholesterol intakes average 281 and 263 mg/day (median 214 and 184 mg/day) including 0.7 and 0.5 egg/day; reported hypercholesterolemia rates are 17.7 and 16.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Effective concentration and transformation of supplemental n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA from feed to egg substantially enhanced egg n-3 PUFA %DRI, particularly of DHA, critical for health but often deficient. Such land-based n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA fortification may be applicable to high n-6 PUFA diets, fitting within cholesterol limitations and market criteria. It may contribute to general health and specific requirements (i.e., pregnancy and lactation), with possibilities of wide accessibility and standardization. SN - 1565-1088 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18548978/Egg_fortification_with_n_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids__PUFA_:_nutritional_benefits_versus_high_n_6_PUFA_western_diets_and_consumer_acceptance_ L2 - http://www.ima.org.il/IMAJ/ViewArticle.aspx?year=2008&amp;month=04&amp;page=262 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -