Fournier's gangrene: a review of 110 cases for aetiology, predisposing conditions, microorganisms, and modalities for coverage of necrosed scrotum with bare testes.N Z Med J. 2008 Jun 06; 121(1275):46-56.NZ
The aetiology, definition, and management of Fournier's gangrene are an enigma to surgeons and urologists alike. Indeed, controversy surrounds its management. We managed 110 cases of Fournier's gangrene with different modalities and compared their outcomes along with those of contemporary studies.
To evaluate aetiology, predisposing factors, and causative organisms plus compare modalities of surgical management of Fournier's gangrene.
110 cases of Fournier's gangrene that were admitted and treated in S.S.G. Hospital (Vadodara/Baroda, India) from January 2000 to December 2006 were evaluated.
The average duration of symptoms was 3-5 days and the commonest presentation was scrotum swelling plus pain and fever. The most common aetiological factor was trauma and urinary tract infection. The majority (84%) of cases had bilateral scrotal involvement. In the majority (46%) of patients, a mixture of causative organisms were isolated; E. coli was isolated in 17.5% of patients. The fascicutaneous rotation thigh flap procedure gave the best cosmetic results.
Review of the cases suggests that the Fournier's gangrene is either an idiopathic condition or secondary to adjacent infection or the operation performed. The condition progresses rapidly but is usually self-limiting and most commonly confined to the genitalia. Adequate diagnosis is imperative and immediate intense and aggressive therapy is necessary. Prompt surgical debridement and administration of appropriate antibiotics (both local and systemic) are necessary to lower mortality and morbidity. Most of the defects can be closed secondarily while some need coverage by skin grafting. Fasciocutaneous rotation thigh flap is the best cosmetically acceptable repair, although it demands surgeons with considerable skill and experience and there are relatively more complications compared with other procedures as well as a longer hospital stay.