An anatomical and analytical study of the modiolus: enlightening its relevance to plastic surgery.Aesthetic Plast Surg 2009; 33(2):147-52AP
This study was designed to evaluate the structures, muscles, and fasciae of which the modiolus is composed. It can aid in the understanding and, therefore, the utilization of plastic surgery for the aesthetic or reconstructive treatment of that region, especially the angle of the mouth.
Dissections of the midface were done on five different cadavers. They were of different races (3 males, 2 females). The anatomy of the modiolus was studied in detail. New anatomical observations were classified as type I through type VI.
The perifacial artery fascia contributed to the modiolus in four (80%) specimens and was not part of it in 1 (20%) specimen. The facial artery was anterior to it in one (20%) specimen, lateral in four (80%) specimens, and never medial to it. No significant relationship was observed between the perifacial artery fascia contribution to the modiolus and gender or race. Also, the location of the facial artery lateral or anterior to the modiolus was not significantly related to gender or race. In addition, the deep and superficial fasciae of the face converged not anterior to the masseter muscle but actually at the modiolus, which was different from observations made by others.
The modiolus is of critical importance in aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery of the face.