K+ channels and the cAMP-PKA pathway modulate TGF-beta1-induced migration of rat vascular myofibroblasts.J Cell Physiol. 2008 Sep; 216(3):835-43.JC
Our previous studies have indicated that TGF-beta1 exerts its effect on the expression of A-type potassium channels (I(A)) in rat vascular myofibroblasts by activation of protein kinase C during the phenotypic transformation of vascular fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. In the present study, patch-clamp whole-cell recording and transwell-migration assays were used to examine the effects of TGF-beta1- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced expression of I(A) channels on myofibroblast migration and its modulation by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Our results reveal that incubation of fibroblasts with TGF-beta1 or PMA up-regulates the expression of I(A) channels and increases myofibroblast migration. Blocking I(A) channel expression by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) significantly inhibits TGF-beta1- and PMA-induced myofibroblast migration. Incubation of fibroblasts with forskolin does not result in increased expression of I(A) channels but does cause a slight increase in fibroblast migration at higher concentrations. In addition, forskolin increases the TGF-beta1- and PMA-induced myofibroblast migration but inhibits TGF-beta1- and PMA-induced the expression of I(A) channels. Whole-cell current recordings showed that forskolin augments the delayed rectifier outward K(+) (I(K)) current amplitude of fibroblasts, but not the I(A) of myofibroblasts. Our results also indicate that TGF-beta1- and PMA-induced expression of I(A) channels might be related to increase TGF-beta1- or PMA-induced myofibroblast migration. Promoting fibroblast and myofibroblast migration via the PKA pathway does not seem to involve the expression of I(A) channels, but the modulation of I(K) and I(A) channels might be implicated.